By Thomas Paine*
always understood that Free-Masons have a secret which they carefully
conceal; but from every thing that can be collected from their own
accounts of Masonry, their real secret is no other than their origin,
which but few of them understand; and those who do, envelope it in
The Society of Masons are distinguished into three classes or degrees.
The Entered Apprentice.
2d. The Fellow
3d. The Master
Apprentice knows but little more of Masonry than the use of signs
and tokens, and certain steps and words by which Masons can recognize
each other without being discovered by a person who is not a Mason.
The Fellow Craft is not much better instructed in Masonry, than the
Entered Apprentice. It is only in the Master Mason’s Lodge, that whatever
knowledge remains of the origin of Masonry is preserved and concealed.
In 1730, Samuel Pritchard, member of a constituted lodge in England,
published a treatise entitled Masonry Dissected; and made oath before
the Lord Mayor of London that it was a true copy. ”Samuel Pritchard
maketh oath that the copy hereunto annexed is a true and genuine copy
in every particular.” In his work he has given the catechism or examination,
in question and answer, of the Apprentices, the Fellow Craft, and
the Master Mason. There was no difficulty in doing this, as it is
In his introduction he says, the original institution of Masonry consisted
in the foundation of the liberal arts and sciences, but more especially
in Geometry, for at the building of the tower of Babel, the art and
mystery of Masonry was first introduced, and from thence handed down
by Euclid, a worthy and excellent mathematician of the Egyptians;
and he communicated it to Hiram, the Master Mason concerned in building
Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem.”
Besides the absurdity of deriving Masonry from the building of Babel,
where, according to the story, the confusion of languages prevented
the builders understanding each other, and consequently of communicating
any knowledge they had, there is a glaring contradiction in point
of chronology in the account he gives. Solomon’s Temple was built
and dedicated 1004 years before the Christian era; and Euclid, as
may be seen in the tables of chronology, lived 277 before the same
era. It was therefore impossible that Euclid could communicate any
thing to Hiram, since Euclid did not live till 700 years after the
time of Hiram.
In 1783, Captain George Smith, inspector of the Royal Artillery Academy
at Woolwich, in England, and Provincial Grand Master of Masonry for
the county of Kent, published a treatise entitled, The Use and
Abuse of Free-Masonry.
In his chapter of the antiquity of Masonry, he makes it to be coeval
with creation, “when,” says he, ”the sovereign architect raised on
Masonic principles the beauteous globe, and commanded the master science,
Geometry, to lay the planetary world, and to regulate by its laws
the whole stupendous system in just unerring proportion, rolling round
the central sun.”
”But,” continues he, “I am not at liberty publicly to undraw the curtain,
and openly to descant on this head; it is sacred, and ever will remain
so; those who are honored with the trust will not reveal it, and those
who are ignorant of it cannot betray it.” By this last part of the
phrase, Smith means the two inferior classes, the Fellow Craft and
the Entered Apprentice, for he says in the next page of his work,
“It is not every one that is barely initiated into Free-Masonry that
is entrusted with all the mysteries thereto belonging; they are not
attainable as things of course, nor by every capacity.”
The learned, but unfortunate Doctor Dodd, Grand Chaplain of Masonry,
in his oration at the dedication of Free-Mason’s Hall, London, traces
Masonry through a variety of stages. Masons, says he, are well informed
from their own private and interior records that the building of Solomon’s
Temple is an important era, from whence they derive many mysteries
of their art. “Now (says he,) be it remembered that this great event
took place above 1000 years before the Christian era, and consequently
more than a century before Homer, the first of the Grecian Poets,
wrote; and above five centuries before Pythagoras brought from the
east his sublime system of truly masonic instruction to illuminate.
our western world. But, remote as this period is, we date not from
thence the commencement of our art. For though it might owe to the
wise and glorious King of Israel some of its many mystic forms and
hieroglyphic ceremonies, yet certainly the art itself is coeval with
man, the great subject of it. “We trace,” continues he, “its footsteps
in the most distant, the most remote ages and nations of the world.
We find it among the first and most celebrated civilizers of the East.
We deduce it regularly from the first astronomers on the plains of
Chaldea, to the wise and mystic kings and priests of Egypt, the sages
of Greece, and the philosophers of Rome.”
From these reports and declarations of Masons of the highest order
in the institution, we see that Masonry, without publicly declaring
so, lays claim to some divine communication from the creator, in a
manner different from, and unconnected with, the book which the Christians
call the bible; and the natural result from this is, that Masonry
is derived from some very ancient religion, wholly independent of
and unconnected with that book.
To come then at once to the point, Masonry (as I shall show from the
customs, ceremonies, hieroglyphics, and chronology of Masonry) is
derived and is the remains of the religion of the ancient Druids;
who, like the Magi of Persia and the Priests of Heliopolis in Egypt,
were Priests of the Sun. They paid worship to this great luminary,
as the great visible agent of a great invisible first cause whom they
styled “ Time without limits.” [NOTE: Zarvan-Akarana. This personification
of Boundless Time, though a part of Parsee Theology, seems to be a
later monotheistic dogma, based on perversions of the Zendavesta.
See Haug’s “Religion of the Parsees.”—Editor.]
The Christian religion and Masonry have one and the same common origin:
both are derived from the worship of the Sun. The difference between
their origin is, that the Christian religion is a parody on the worship
of the Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the
place of the Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally
paid to the Sun, as I have shown in the chapter on the origin of the
Christian religion. [NOTE: Referring to an unpublished portion
of the work of which this chapter forms a part.—American Editor, 1819
[This paragraph is omitted from the pamphlet copyrighted by Madame
Bonneville in 1810, as also is the last sentence of the next paragraph.—Editor.]
In Masonry many of the ceremonies of the Druids are preserved in their
original state, at least without any parody. With them the Sun is
still the Sun; and his image, in the form of the sun is the great
emblematical ornament of Masonic Lodges and Masonic dresses. It is
the central figure on their aprons, and they wear it also pendant
on the breast in their lodges, and in their processions. It has the
figure of a man, as at the head of the sun, as Christ is always represented.
At what period of antiquity, or in what nation, this religion was
first established, is lost in the labyrinth of unrecorded time. It
is generally ascribed to the ancient Egyptians, the Babylonians and
Chaldeans, and reduced afterwards to a system regulated by the apparent
progress of the sun through the twelve signs of Zodiac by Zoroaster
the law giver of Persia, from whence Pythagoras brought it into Greece.
It is to these matters Dr. Dodd refers in the passage already quoted
from his oration.
The worship of the Sun as the great visible agent of a great invisible
first cause, “Time without limits,” spread itself over a considerable
part of Asia and Africa, from thence to Greece and Rome, through all
ancient Gaul, and into Britain and Ireland.
Smith, in his chapter on the antiquity of Masonry in Britain, says,
that “notwithstanding the obscurity which envelopes Masonic history
in that country, various circumstances contribute to prove that Free-Masonry
was introduced into Britain about 1030 Years before Christ.” It cannot
be Masonry in its present state that Smith here alludes to. The Druids
flourished in Britain at the period he speaks of, and it is from them
that Masonry is descended. Smith has put the child in the place of
It sometimes happens, as well in writing as in conversation, that
a person lets slip an expression that serves to unravel what he intends
to conceal, and this is the case with Smith, for in the same chapter
he says, “The Druids, when they committed any thing to writing, used
the Greek alphabet, and I am bold to assert that the most perfect
remains of the Druids’ rites and ceremonies are preserved in the customs
and ceremonies of the Masons that are to be found existing among mankind.”
“My brethren” says he, “may be able to trace them with greater exactness
than I am at liberty to explain to the public.”
This is a confession from a Master Mason, without intending it to
be so understood by the public, that Masonry is the remains of the
religion of the Druids; the reasons for the Masons keeping this a
secret I shall explain in the course of this work.
As the study and contemplation of the Creator [is] in the works of
the creation, the Sun, as the great visible agent of that Being, was
the visible object of the adoration of Druids; all their religious
rites and ceremonies had reference to the apparent progress of the
Sun through the twelve signs of the Zodiac, and his influence upon
the earth. The Masons adopt the same practices. The roof of their
Temples or Lodges is ornamented with a Sun, and the floor is a representation
of the variegated face of the earth either by carpeting or Mosaic
Free Masons Hall, in Great Queen-street, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London,
is a magnificent building, and cost upwards of 12,000 pounds sterling.
Smith, in speaking of this building, says (page 152,) ”The roof of
this magnificent Hall is in all probability the highest piece of finished
architecture in Europe. In the center of this roof, a most resplendent
Sun is represented in burnished gold, surrounded with the twelve signs
of the Zodiac, with their respective characters;
After giving this description, he says, “The emblematical meaning
of the Sun is well known to the enlightened and inquisitive Free-Mason;
and as the real Sun is situated in the center of the universe, so
the emblematical Sun is the center of real Masonry. We all know (continues
he) that the Sun is the fountain of light, the source of the seasons,
the cause of the vicissitudes of day and night, the parent of vegetation,
the friend of man; hence the scientific Free-Mason only knows the
reason why the Sun is placed in the center of this beautiful hall.”
The Masons, in order to protect themselves from the persecution of
the Christian church, have always spoken in a mystical manner of the
figure of the Sun in their Lodges, or, like the astronomer Lalande,
who is a Mason, been silent upon the subject. It is their secret,
especially in Catholic countries, because the figure of the Sun is
the expressive criterion that denotes they are descended from the
Druids, and that wise, elegant, philosophical religion, was the faith
opposite to the faith of the gloomy Christian church. [NOTE: This
sentence is omitted in Madame Bonneville’s publication.—Editor.]
The Lodges of the Masons, if built for the purpose, are constructed
in a manner to correspond with the apparent motion of the Sun. They
are situated East and West. [NOTE: The Freemason’s Hall in London,
which Paine has correctly described, is situated North and South,
the exigencies of the space having been too strong for Masonic orthodoxy.
Though nominally eastward the Master stands at the South.—Editor.]
The master’s place is always in the East. In the examination of
an Entered Apprentice, the Master, among many other questions, asks
Q: How is the lodge situated?
A: East and West.
Q: Why so?
A: Because all churches and chapels are, or ought to be so.”
This answer, which is mere catechismal form, is not an answer to the
question. It does no more than remove the question a point further,
which is, why ought all churches and chapels to be so?
But as the Entered Apprentice is not initiated into the druidical
mysteries of Masonry, he is not asked any questions a direct answer
to which would lead thereto.
Q: Where stands your Master?
A: In the East.
Q: Why so?
A: As the Sun rises in the East and opens the day, so the Master stands
in the East, (with his right hand upon his left breast, being a sign,
and the square about his neck,) to open the Lodge, and set his men
Q: Where stand your Wardens?
A: In the West.
Q: What is their business?
A: As the Sun sets in the West to close the day, so the Wardens stand
in the West, (with their right hands upon their left breasts, being
a sign, and the level and plumb rule about their necks,) to close
the Lodge, and dismiss the men from labor, paying them their wages.”
Here the name of the Sun is mentioned, but it is proper to observe
that in this place it has reference only to labor or to the time of
labor, and not to any religious druidical rite or ceremony, as it
would have with respect to the situation of Lodges East and West.
I have already observed in the chapter on the origin of the Christian
religion, that the situation of churches East and West is taken from
the worship of the Sun, which rises in the east, and has not the least
reference to the person called Jesus Christ. The Christians never
bury their dead on the North side of a church; [NOTE: In many parts
of Northern Europe the North was supposed to be the region of demons.
Executed criminals were buried on the north side of churches.—Editor.]
and a Mason’s Lodge always has, or is supposed to have, three windows
which are called fixed lights, to distinguish them from the moveable
lights of the Sun and the Moon. The Master asks the Entered Apprentice,
Q: How are they (the fixed lights) situated?
A: East, West, and South.
Q: What are their uses?
A: To light the men to and from their work.
Q: Why are there no lights in the North?
A: Because the Sun darts no rays from thence.”
This, among numerous other instances, shows that the Christian religion
and Masonry have one and the same common origin, the ancient worship
of the Sun.
The high festival of the Masons is on the day they call St. John’s
day; but every enlightened Mason must know that holding their festival
on this day has no reference to the person called St. John, and that
it is only to disguise the true cause of holding it on this day, that
they call the day by that name. As there were Masons, or at least
Druids, many centuries before the time of St. John, if such person
ever existed, the holding their festival on this day must refer to
some cause totally unconnected with John.
The case is, that the day called St. John’s day, is the 24th
of June, and is what is called Midsummer-day. The sun is then arrived
at the summer solstice; and, with respect to his meridional altitude,
or height at high noon, appears for some days to be of the same height.
The astronomical longest day, like the shortest day, is not every
year, on account of leap year, on the same numerical day, and therefore
the 24th of June is always taken for Midsummer-day; and
it is in honor of the sun, which has then arrived at his greatest
height in our hemisphere, and not any thing with respect to St. John,
that this annual festival of the Masons, taken from the Druids, is
celebrated on Midsummer-day.
Customs will often outlive the remembrance of their origin, and this
is the case with respect to a custom still practiced in Ireland, where
the Druids flourished at the time they flourished in Britain. On the
eve of Saint John’s day, that is, on the eve of Midsummer-day, the
Irish light fires on the tops of the hills. This can have no reference
to St. John; but it has emblematical reference to the sun, which on
that day is at his highest summer elevation, and might in common language
be said to have arrived at the top of the hill.
As to what Masons, and books of Masonry, tell us of Solomon’s Temple
at Jerusalem, it is no wise improbable that some Masonic ceremonies
may have been derived from the building of that temple, for the worship
of the Sun was in practice many centuries before the Temple existed,
or before the Israelites came out of Egypt. And we learn from the
history of the Jewish Kings, 2 Kings xxii.xxiii. that the worship
of the Sun was performed by the Jews in that Temple. It is, however,
much to be doubted if it was done with the same scientific purity
and religious morality with which it was performed by the Druids,
who, by all accounts that historically remain of them, were a wise,
learned, and moral class of men. The Jews, on the contrary, were ignorant
of astronomy, and of science in general, and if a religion founded
upon astronomy fell into their hands, it is almost certain it would
be corrupted. We do not read in the history of the Jews, whether in
the Bible or elsewhere, that they were the inventors or the improvers
of any one art or science. Even in the building of this temple, the
Jews did not know how to square and frame the timber for beginning
and carrying on the work, and Solomon was obliged to send to Hiram,
King of Tyre (Zidon) to procure workmen; ”for thou knowest, (says
Solomon to Hiram, 1 Kings v. 6.) that there is not among us any that
can skill to hew timber like unto the Zidonians.” This temple was
more properly Hiram’s Temple than Solomon’s, and if the Masons derive
any thing from the building of it, they owe it to the Zidonians and
not to the Jews.—But to return to the worship of the Sun in this Temple.
It is said, 2 Kings xxiii. 5, “And [king Josiah] put down all the
idolatrous priests ... that burned incense unto ... the sun, the moon,
the planets, and all the host of heaven.” And it is said at the 11th
verse: “And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given
to the Sun, at the entering in of the house of the Lord, ... and burned
the chariots of the Sun with fire”; verse 13, “And the high places
that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount
of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth,
the abomination of the Zidonians” (the very people that built the
temple) “did the king defile.”
Besides these things, the description that Josephus gives of the decorations
of this Temple,
resembles on a large scale those of a Mason’s Lodge. He says that
the distribution of the several parts of the Temple of the Jews represented
all nature, particularly the parts most apparent of it, as the sun,
the moon, the planets, the zodiac, the earth, the elements; and that
the system of the world was retraced there by numerous ingenious emblems.
These, in all probability, are, what Josiah, in his ignorance, calls
the abominations of the Zidonians. [NOTE by PAINE: Smith, in speaking
of a Lodge, says, when the Lodge is revealed to an entering Mason,
it discovers to him a representation of the World; in which, from
the wonders of nature, we are led to contemplate her great original,
and worship him from his mighty works; and we are thereby also moved
to exercise those moral and social virtues which become mankind as
the servants of the great Architect of the world. -- Author.]
Every thing, however, drawn from this Temple [NOTE by PAINE: It
may not be improper here to observe, that the law called the law of
Moses could not have been in existence at the time of building this
Temple. Here is the likeness of things in heaven above and in earth
beneath. And we read in I Kings vi., vii., that Solomon made cherubs
and cherubims, that he carved all the walls of the house round about
with cherubims, and palm-trees, and open flowers, and that he made
a molten sea, placed on twelve oxen, and the ledges of it were ornamented
with lions, oxen, and cherubims: all this is contrary to the law called
the law of Moses.—Author.] and applied to Masonry, still refers
to the worship of the Sun, however corrupted or misunderstood by the
Jews, and consequently to the religion of the Druids.
Another circumstance, which shows that Masonry is derived from some
ancient system, prior to and unconnected with the christian religion,
is the chronology, or method of counting time, used by the Masons
in the records of their Lodges. They make no use of what is called
the christian era; and they reckon their months numerically, as the
ancient Egyptians did, and as the Quakers do now. I have by me, a
record of a French Lodge, at the time the late Duke of Orleans, then
Duke de Chartres, was Grand Master of Masonry in France. It begins
as follows: “Le trentieme jour du sixieme mois de l’an de la V.L.
cinq mille sept cent soixante treize;” that is, the thirteenth day
of the sixth month of the year of the Venerable Lodge, five thousand
seven hundred and seventy-three. By what I observe in English books
of Masonry, the English Masons use the initials A.L. and not V.L.
By A.L. they mean in the year of Light, as the Christians by A.D.
mean in the year of our Lord. But A.L. like V.L. refers to the same
chronological era, that is, to the supposed time of the creation.
[NOTE: V.L. are the initials of Vraie Lumiere, true light; and A.L.
of Anne Lucis, in the year of light. This and the three preceding
sentences (of the text) are suppressed in Madame Bonneville’s pamphlet,
1810.—Editor.] In the chapter on the origin of the Christian religion,
I have shown that the Cosmogony, that is, the account of the creation
with which the book of Genesis opens, has been taken and mutilated
from the Zend-Avesta of Zoroaster, and was fixed as a preface to the
Bible after the Jews returned from captivity in Babylon, and that
the Robbins of the Jews do not hold their account in Genesis to be
a fact, but mere allegory. The six thousand years in the Zend-Avesta,
is changed or interpolated into six days in the account of Genesis.
The Masons appear to have chosen the same period, and perhaps to avoid
the suspicion and persecution of the Church, have adopted the era
of the world, as the era of Masonry. The V.L. of the French, and A.L.
of the English Mason, answer to the A.M. Anno Mundi, or year of the
Though the Masons have taken many of their ceremonies and hieroglyphics
from the ancient Egyptians, it is certain they have not taken their
chronology from thence. If they had, the church would soon have sent
them to the stake; as the chronology of the Egyptians, like that of
the Chinese, goes many thousand years beyond the Bible chronology.
The religion of the Druids, as before said, was the same as the religion
of the ancient Egyptians. The priests of Egypt were the professors
and teachers of science, and were styled priests of Heliopolis, that
is, of the City of the Sun. The Druids in Europe, who were the same
order of men, have their name from the Teutonic or ancient German
language; the German being anciently called Teutones. The word Druid
signifies a wise man. [NOTE: German drud, wizard. Cf. Milton’s
line: ”The star-led wizards haste with odours sweet.” The word Druid
has also been derived from Greek ####;, an oak; Celtic ‘deru,’ an
oak and ‘ndd,’ lord; British ‘deruidhon,’ very wise men; Heb. ’derussim,’
contemplators; etc.—Editor.] In Persia they were called Magi,
which signifies the same thing.
Egypt,” says Smith, “from whence we derive many of our mysteries,
has always borne a distinguished rank in history, and was once celebrated
above all others for its antiquities, learning, opulence, and fertility.
In their system, their principal hero- gods, Osiris and Isis, theologically
represented the Supreme Being and universal Nature; and physically
the two great celestial luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, by whose
influence all nature was actuated.” “The experienced brethren of the
society, [says Smith in a note to this passage] are well informed
what affinity these symbols bear to Masonry, and why they are used
in all Masonic Lodges.” In speaking of the apparel of the Masons in
their Lodges, part of which, as we see in their public processions,
is a white leather apron, he says, “the Druids were apparelled in
white at the time of their sacrifices and solemn offices. The Egyptian
priests of Osiris wore snow-white cotton. The Grecian and most other
priests wore white garments. As Masons, we regard the principles of
those ‘who were the first worshipers of the true God,’ imitate their
apparel, and assume the badge of innocence.”
”The Egyptians,” continues Smith, “in the earliest ages constituted
a great number of Lodges, but with assiduous care kept their secrets
of Masonry from all strangers. These secrets have been imperfectly
handed down to us by oral tradition only, and ought to be kept undiscovered
to the laborers, craftsmen, and apprentices, till by good behavior
and long study they become better acquainted in geometry and the liberal
arts, and thereby qualified for Masters and Wardens, which is seldom
or never the case with English Masons.”
Under the head of Free-Masonry, written by the astronomer Lalande,
in the French Encyclopedia, I expected from his great knowledge in
astronomy, to have found much information on the origin of Masonry;
for what connection can there be between any institution and the Sun
and twelve signs of the Zodiac, if there be not something in that
institution, or in its origin, that has reference to astronomy? Every
thing used as an hieroglyphic has reference to the subject and purpose
for which it is used; and we are not to suppose the Free-Masons, among
whom are many very learned and scientific men, to be such idiots as
to make use of astronomical signs without some astronomical purpose.
But I was much disappointed in my expectation from Lalande. In speaking
of the origin of Masonry, he says, “L’orgine de la maconnerie se Perd,
comme tant d’autres, dans l’obscurite des termps;” That is, the origin
of Masonry, like many others, loses itself in the obscurity of time.
When I came to this expression, I supposed Lalande a Mason, and on
enquiry found he was. This passing over saved him from the embarrassment
which Masons are under respecting the disclosure of their origin,
and which they are sworn to conceal. There is a society of Masons
in Dublin who take the name of Druids; these Masons must be supposed
to have a reason for taking that name.
I come now to speak of the cause of secrecy used by the Masons. The
natural source of secrecy is fear. When any new religion over-runs
a former religion, the professors of the new become the persecutors
of the old. We see this in all instances that history brings before
us. When Hilkiah the priest and Shaphan the scribe, in the reign of
King Josiah, found, or pretended to find, the law, called the law
of Moses, a thousand years after the time of Moses, (and it does not
appear from 2 Kings, xxii., xxiii., that such a law was ever practiced
or known before the time of Josiah), he established that law as a
national religion, and put all the priests of the Sun to death. When
the Christian religion over-ran the Jewish religion, the Jews were
the continual subject of persecution in all Christian countries. When
the Protestant religion in England over-ran the Roman Catholic religion,
it was made death for a Catholic priest to be found in England. As
this has been the case in all the instances we have any knowledge
of, we are obliged to admit it with respect to the case in question,
and that when the Christian religion over-ran the religion of the
Druids in Italy, ancient Gaul, Britain, and Ireland, the Druids became
the subject of persecution. This would naturally and necessarily oblige
such of them as remained attached to their original religion to meet
in secret, and under the strongest injunctions of secrecy. Their safety
depended upon it. A false brother might expose the lives of many of
them to destruction; and from the remains of the religion of the Druids,
thus preserved, arose the institution which, to avoid the name of
Druid, took that of Mason, and practiced under this new name the rites
and ceremonies of Druids.
This essay appeared in New York, 1818, with an anonymous preface of
which I quote the opening paragraph: “This tract is a chapter belonging
to the Third Part of the “Age of Reason,” as will be seen by the references
made in it to preceding articles, as forming part of the same work.
It was culled from the writings of Mr. Paine after his death, and
published in a mutilated state by Mrs.Bonneville, his executrix. Passages
having a reference to the Christian religion she erased, with a view
no doubt of accommodating the work to the prejudices of bigotry. These,
however, have been restored from the original manuscript, except a
few lines which were rendered illegible.” Madame Bonneville published
this fragment in New York, 1810 (with the omissions I point out) as
a pamphlet.—Dr. Robinet (Danton- Emigre, p. 7) says erroneously that
Paine was a Freemason; but an eminent member of that Fraternity in
London, Mr. George Briggs, after reading this essay, which I submitted
to him, tells me that “his general outline, remarks, and comments,
are fairly true.” Paine’s intimacy in Paris with Nicolas de Bonneville
and Charles Frangois Dupuis, whose writings are replete with masonic
speculations, sufficiently explain his interest in the subject. --
Moncure Daniel Conway The Writings of Thomas Paine 1896 G.P. Putnam’s
Sons, New York]
note: this text is taken from Moncure Daniels Conway’s Writings of
Thomas Paine published by G.P. Putnam’s Sons in 1896. Conway’s comments
appear as “notes” signed “editor” in the preceeding text.